National Education policy is the policy and instructional education system adopted by the government of a country or by the people of all walks of life to build the present and future generations of the country in the field of education. The Union Cabinet has approved the new education policy on 29th July 2020. At the same time, the name of the Ministry of Human Resources was changed to the Ministry of Education.
It was announced on this day that from now onwards there will be only one regulatory body for higher education in the country and M.Phil is going to be closed. The National Educational Technology Forum will be formed to accelerate digital learning across the country.
Highlights of NEP 2020
|Full Name||National Education Policy 2020|
|First Started||1968 under Indira Gandhi lead cabinet|
|Objective||to build the present and future generations of the country|
as skilled human resources
|Monitored By||Ministry of Education (Earlier Ministry of Human Resource)|
What is National Education Policy 2020
Education Policy of a country determines the overall standard of education of a country. In India, our education system still adapts a standard that was last reformed in 1992. Due to the quick technological revolution in the last 2 decades, crucial reforms were demanded by intellectuals for so many years.
It is clear from the education policy that the government of India will show the way for the progress of the country and its people. The Kasturirangan Commission has clarified this path in every chapter of the National Education Policy 2020 and has been adopted by the current government of India. In this article, I will throw light on some aspects of the newly proposed .Education Policy.
First, this education policy is not to enrich qualification or bookish knowledge, but to acquire skills, that is, “skill development” at its center. Therefore, in various chapters of proposed changes in higher education, the importance of basic research is less, but more emphasis is placed on “acquiring skills” or “skill development”.
So the aim of this education policy is not to add new knowledge based on the knowledge of the world, but to build skilled workers at different levels in the future. Of course, this is not new. According to the analysis of all those who have seen a change in the field of higher education in India in the last few years, this phenomenon was inevitable.
Efforts have been made over the years to create an education system that blinds the thinking of the education system in the United States and some other countries, which is inconsistent with the actual situation in India. This is demonstrated in this education policy.
It has to be recognized that skilled workers have a special role in the progress of the country. But at the same time, without the opportunity to get to the root of a subject, progress in basic research on that subject is absolutely impossible. It is possible to acquire skills only by applying the knowledge gained from basic research.
Therefore perseverance goes hand in hand to study knowledge and acquire skills. The main function of the university is “discovery and dissemination of knowledge”. However, the recommendation of the Kasturirangan Committee on National Education Policy 2020 is to maintain the existence of three types of higher education institutions in the country – “research-intensive universities” or RUs, “teaching universities” or TUs and “degree colleges”. This is to create separate higher education institutions for teaching and research.
Important aspects of the new education policy 2020: –
1) First of all, the Ministry of Human Resource Development has been renamed as Ministry of Education. The Ministry concerned was known by this name since the independence of the country. It was later changed in 1975.
2) Right to education for all in the new education policy. Students from 3 to 18 years have been brought under this.
3) Board exams of class X or XII are becoming insignificant in the new National Education Policy 2020. In this exam, students will now have to focus on hands-on learning. There are two ways to reduce the pressure on students – objective (short questions) and descriptive (explanatory). Board exams can be taken twice a year.
4) Emphasis on mother tongue till fifth grade. Offer to take exams in third, fifth, and eighth grades instead of every year.
5) Vocational education is being included in the syllabus from class VI. After 10th grade, the gap between the art department, the science department, or the commerce department is widening. For example, even if someone is studying physics, music can be from his side. Even if you study physics and chemistry, you will have the opportunity to study fashion designing.
7) According to the new National Education Policy 2020, marks and numbers in marksheets are in-significant, and hence instead of marks and percentage, the focus will be on skill and learning. No language will be forced on anyone. Education in mother tongue and regional language will be considered optional till eighth grade.
8) Board exams will be taken on the basis of practical aspects of knowledge of the students. Twelfth-grade board exams are proposed for 6 semesters. 5 + 3 + 3 + 4 Part 15 years of school-level education. Of these, three years of pre-school education are recommended.
9) The honors course can be up to 4 years in graduation. However, at the end of each year, students will receive a certificate. On leaving the study within 12 months of starting the course, students will get a certificate of a vocational course. If you leave after two years or 24 months, you will get a diploma certificate. Degree course certificate can be obtained only after doing a four-year course. As a result, it is claimed that there will be benefits in terms of jobs. From now onwards, there will be no M.Phil course. The Center aims to increase the gross enrollment ratio to 50 percent by 2035. There are many benefits for those who want to join or leave undergraduate or postgraduate courses in between.
There will be three or four-year undergraduate courses and one or two-year postgraduate courses. Credit will be given to those students through the ‘Academic Bank of Credit’ at the time of joining or leaving the course. Five-year integrated undergraduate or postgraduate courses will be started.
10) By 2030, the minimum qualification for teaching will be a 4-year integrated B.Ed. degree. A new and expanded C National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education (NCFTE 2021) for teachers will be developed by the National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE). The new structure will be based on consultation with the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT).
11) All higher education institutions except law and medicine are under the umbrella of a regulatory body.
12) Uniform regulation will be introduced for all higher education institutions, public and private.
13) Government will invest 6 percent of GDP in education as soon as possible.
14) Emphasis on online courses in regional languages.
15) Special emphasis on providing educational opportunities to all. The Center wants to achieve the 100 percent literacy rate in the country within the stipulated time frame.
Key Reforms that NEP 2020 focusses on
1. Internationalization of Education:
To compete with the international market, our education system was needed some urgent reforms. Among them, one is the standard of our education system. The education system of western countries such as the USA, the UK follows the latest technology based hands-on learning. With NEP 2020, now onwards Indian institutes can easily collaborate with foreign universities, research institutes easily. Foreign universities can set-up their campuses in India easily.
2. Mental and Physical Well-being of students
Mental and Physical wellness is always neglected in our society. These are equally important as Academic wellness of a child. Hence, from now onwards, students will be taught mental and physical classes. Students will undergo frequent counseling, health checkups, and inclusive care in schools.
3. Use of technology in every level of Education System
Technology will be implemented at every level of the education system. From one to one classes to virtual seminar/webinar, technology will be playing the key role. Students from remote areas can access content in regional languages. From Admission to attendance, every academic activity will be done through Educational Softwares such as ERP(Eg: Student Management System).
4. PARAKH ( Performance, Assessment, Review, and Analysis of knowledge for holistic development)
The Ministry Of Education will set up a standard setting-body called PARAKH which will set the norms and guidelines for the academic assessment of students in order to achieve the skill requirement of the 21st century.
5. No hard difference between arts, commerce and Science
It has been observed that there is a huge learning gap between arts and students. Arts guys are always considered as weak and are not allowed to pick any subjects other than pre-designed subjects. NEP 2020 focusses to eliminate this learning gap. Every individual has the right to choose subjects of its own interest.
From now onwards there will no difference between Arts and Science, curricular & Extra-curricular activities, Vocational & Academic learning.
6. Coding will be made compulsary for students from class VI
Due to the rapid rise of automation technology, children need to be future-ready. For this, codings are included from starting class vi onwards. It will help them understand Machine operations more easily.
7. Continous Professional Development
To teach students the latest technologies, a teacher needs to be up-skilled and need a learning attitude. For this, each teacher will be undergone a 50 hrs CPD training(Continous Professional Development) per year based on their area of interest.
The teachers with excellent performance and leadership quality will be trained over time and will be provided Academic Leadership positions
8. Contemporary Subjects will be introduced at all levels
Contemporary subjects are the subjects that are in rising demand in the market. These subjects will be introduced at each level of education so that students can be made job-ready as soon as they complete education.
9. Vocational & Professional Training is mandatory for all higher Education
Vocational Training and Professional Education has been included in Higher education. All institutions both professional and general education will have to adapt these both in their academics seamlessly and in an integrated manner by 2030
10. National Education Technology Forum(NETF) will be set-up for the free exchange of ideas
National Education Policy 2020: Expectation Vs Ground Reality
There is doubt about how realistic this system is. At the same time, inhibiting teaching and research in this way will deprive the student of the opportunity for overall learning, as well as inhibit the teacher’s own progress.
Another proposal is to allow students at various levels to leave the course during a three or four-year degree course and go out with a diploma or advanced diploma. While it is not possible to apply this proposal to professional subjects, such as engineering education, it is unclear how it will be applied to the education of other subjects, such as physics, chemistry, or history. What can students contribute to society in the next life with shallow or superficial knowledge in subjects where it is impossible to move forward without reaching the level of education?
The biggest thing is that in this education policy there is no mention of what kind of employment opportunities can be given to students who have passed with such a diploma or advanced diploma. Has there been any analysis of what employment opportunities a student with a diploma in Physics can get? That is to say, coming back to the same place – in national education policy 2020 such a recommendation has given more importance to skills-based professional or vocational issues and fundamental and important issues have been neglected.
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Instead of encouraging students to gain general knowledge in these subjects, at least until graduation, a way has been created for them to leave school in the middle which may never be the aim of education policy. Also, whether it is vocational, vocational, or any other subject, how can such an idea be made so that a student can get an education like getting a diploma in between? It is also difficult to do so in the current semester system.
In various chapters of the National Education Policy 2020, only a few branches of computer science like “artificial intelligence”, “machine learning” etc. have been mentioned as the focus of education in the future. Of course, due to the advancement of information technology in the age of globalization, there is a need for skills in artificial intelligence, machine learning, or data science at the moment. But the pace at which computer science or information technology has changed over the past five decades could lead to further expansion of any of the above disciplines in the next few years or any other new technology may take precedence around the world. In that case, these parts of education policy will become insignificant.
Without focusing on computer science or information technology as a whole, the special mention of two or three subjects is indicative of the short-sightedness of the policy makers. Moreover, the education policy that is being formulated for the expansion of education in the country as a whole, has repeatedly mentioned two or three special issues, including computer science or information technology, ignoring other streams of science and technology.
However, other areas, such as space research or medicine-related research, where India is already self-sufficient, are not mentioned in this education policy. In the past education policies, emphasis was laid on agricultural education and research keeping in view the special social and economic situation of India. Although agriculture is mentioned as part of vocational education in the current education policy, it has not been given priority.
Currently, emphasis is being laid on online education all over India. This has been mentioned more than once in different chapters of education policy. Chapter 12 recommends “ODL and online education provide a natural path to increase access to high-quality higher education”. Education that uses video lectures or other technologies through online education i.e. internet, smart phones etc. can never be a substitute for normal classroom-based education. This type of medium can be used to further strengthen classroom-based learning, not excluding it.
Moreover, in the current situation of our country, the emphasis on online education means depriving a large part of the country of equal opportunities for education. According to a 2014 National Sample Survey report, only 26 percent of households in the country have access to the Internet. Moreover, only 48 percent of these households have any suitable device for online studies, such as smartphones, computers, etc. So about 12.5% of the children in our country have the opportunity to study online. The rest are deprived of this opportunity. There is no evidence that this situation has improved in 2020.
On Independence Day this year, Prime Minister Narendra Modi has promised to provide internet service to every village in the country through an optical fiber network within 1000 days. Even if it is assumed that this work will be done by the government, will every family and the students of that family be able to avail this service? Economic factors will be the main obstacle.
Other reasons, such as not feeling comfortable with this type of education, can also keep students away from this type of study.
However, the repeated emphasis on online or distance education while keeping these issues unspoken in the entire education policy and at the same time recommending strengthening the education system through various electronic means like digital libraries gives some opportunities to some students but deprives a large number of students of this opportunity. Keep it.
In the name of internationalization, it has been recommended to give clearance to foreign universities for setting up campuses in India. Foreign universities may be encouraged, as most of them are currently feeling threatened by the lack of students.
But there is no reason to think that foreign universities will continue to excel in education. Government higher education institutions in our country are constantly struggling due to lack of infrastructure and funds.
But still the best students of the country have passed from these institutions of higher learning and are holding various higher positions in the country and abroad to show their talent and skills.
A large part of the students who are being produced from these government educational institutions of the country are going to do post-graduate research in the so-called “Ivy League Universities” (the famous universities of America which have been mentioned many times in this education policy).
Therefore, the main objective of the education policy should have been to bring these public educational institutions up to international standards in terms of infrastructure and funding. However, their very existence is being jeopardized by the inclination towards privatization and the inclusion of government institutions in the ranking system of an unreasonable rat race.
Towards the end of the education policy, several recommendations have been made about the management system of higher education institutions.
Although education is in the joint list of the Indian Constitution, the role of states is not mentioned in this link. Rather, it is mentioned that all types of higher educational institutions will be bound to follow the guidelines of the National Higher Education Regulatory Authority.
An attempt has been made to tie all the management systems in a special format that does not currently exist in any university in the Center or the states. Creating a management system in universities that mimics the management system of educational institutions such as IITs, IIMs is anti-autonomous as it is unrealistic and ineffective.
In particular, there is considerable doubt as to how much transparency or self-government remains in the management system of IITs or IIMs. Many incidents of previous years point to the ongoing political intervention in these educational institutions.
The divide between rich and poor in India’s education system persists even seven decades after independence. In contrast, over the years, the government has repeatedly shifted the responsibility of education to the private sector. There is no direction in the education policy of 2020 to reduce this division, but the recommendations made will increase this division many times.
In the twenty-second chapter of the education policy, several recommendations have been made to protect Indian culture. In this section and some other chapters, the culture or language of a large part of the country is referred to as Indian culture or Indian language.
This misrepresentation is never accidental, but there is no doubt that it happened at the behest of the present central government.
These recommendations are in line with efforts that have been made in the past few years to establish majority rule in India, ignore pluralism, and the way human rights have been repeatedly violated.
Such recommendations will divide education and hinder the advancement of science and technology. However, since this issue is related to the overall development of the country, it should be discussed separately.
There are many other issues in this education policy that express or point to deep skepticism towards the contraction of education. Many have discussed those issues. It is not possible to cover all issues in this short range. But in future we should be vocal against the contraction and division of this education.